Applied Cosmic Anthropology
-Asian Social Institute (ASI)

Critical Issues Related to Sustainable Development - 081

Theories of Development.  Critical and historical understanding of social development knowledge, values and interventions. Philosophical antecedents of development theories. Evaluating theories: development models.  Development policy studies:  Trends, Issues and Problems.  Study and analysis of laws (international, national, local) and regulations concerning the environment; political and administrative problems concerning the implementation of such legislation; regulatory approaches; G.O. and NGO alternative approaches for the protection of the environment.  New Ways of Industrialization.  Eco-tourism.  Planning local participation in Eco-tourism projects.  Independent Study/ Practicum.  Designing a public forum.

description

In the past, sustainability has not really been expressed as an explicit goal of development. Over time, however, as industrialization progresses, man’s very own survival and existence has been severely threatened because of several factors: limitations and constraints of the physical environment to grow, rapid population growth, climatic change, natural disasters, scarcity and depletion of the world’s resources. All these factors have in turn contributed to the deterioration of man’s social conditions that give rise to such global problems as poverty, ecological degradation, inequity, social divisiveness, cultural disintegration, and disenfranchisement. To ensure and maintain man’s existence, global attention to development has, since the early 1990s, focused on sustainability as an explicit goal.

objectives

At the end of the course, the student is expected to:

1. Understand the dynamics and consequences of today's framework of sustainable development on the environment, people, and society;

2. Understand the various theories on sustainable development that are vying for world power today; and

3. Formulate ACA's alternative sustainable development paradigm.

list of topics

Overall, there are more or less 15 topics given for this course. The number of topics corresponds to the average number of sessions set for one semester. These topics are given in modular form below.

1.Welcome to Sustainable Development - The indicators of sustainable development are designed to address common environmental problems: Acid rain, pollution, deforestation, desertification, flooding, global warming, hazardous wastes, extinction of several species, loss of ecosystem, ozone depletion, water shortages, and wetlands destruction.

2. Prevailing View of Sustainable DevelopmentIn the past, sustainability has not really been expressed as an explicit goal of development. Over time, however, as industrialization progresses, man’s very own survival and existence has been severely threatened because of several factors: limitations and constraints of the physical environment to grow, rapid population growth, climatic change, natural disasters, scarcity and depletion of the world’s resources. All these factors have in turn contributed to the deterioration of man’s social conditions that give rise to such global problems as poverty, ecological degradation, inequity, social divisiveness, cultural disintegration, and disenfranchisement. To ensure and maintain man’s existence, global attention to development has, since the early 1990s, focused on sustainability as an explicit goal.

3. Critical Issues in Sustainable Development - In order to achieve that state of harmony between man and his environment, the global community has embarked on a four-decade journey aimed at furthering progress towards broad global sustainable development objectives. During the course of this 40-year period, a manifold range of sustainable development issues, which the World Summit on Sustainable Development-2002 labeled as critical, have been discussed, debated, deliberated, and negotiated.

4. Toward an Alternative View of Sustainable Development - In spite of the several recent developments, the above approach can still be considered as conventional when explaining the nature, scope, and objectives of sustainable development. The term “sustainable development” is broadly described as that state of living where man is in harmony with his environment and his fellowmen. Environment can refer to the physical resources of Mother Nature and that harmonious living infers that man’s work does not result in environmental degradation, in the disturbance of Nature’s biological diversity and life-support systems, in undermining its ecological system, and in compromising the ability of the environment to grow and renew itself.

5. Theories on Sustainable Development - Theories on development now abound. In all this, the overriding theory is the Western neoclassical perspective that pervades in most contemporary interpretations of sustainable development. Some of the more famous neo-classical theories of economics that are used to analyze sustainable development include optimal control theory, optimal growth and development models, population growth theories, income distribution theories, growth theories, development theories, comparative static analysis, production function (environmental productivity), utility function, equity theories, etc.

 

Views of Other Disciplines on Sustainable Development: A Comparative View

The Cosmic Anthropological Perspective of Sustainable Development

The Implications of the CA perspective to Today's Globalizing World

Energy and Mineral Resources and Their Implications to Sustainable Development

Ecological Resources and Sustainable Development

Urbanization and Industrialization: Their Implications to SD

Poverty and Sustainable Development

Population and Sustainable Development

Globalization and Sustainable Development

Agriculture and Sustainable Development

Politics and Sustainable Development

Leadership and Governance in Sustainable Development

Summary, Reflections, and Conclusions

references

What is Sustainable Development

  Anderson, Victor. 1991. “Alternative economic indicators.” London: Routledge, 1991. 106 p. http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan96/litscan.htm

 Cobb, Clifford W. and John B. Cobb, Jr. 1994. “The green national product: a proposed index of sustainable economic welfare.” Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc., 1994. 343 p. http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan96/litscan.htm.

  Hartmut Bossel. 1999. Indicators of Sustainable Development: Theory, Method and Applications. A Report to the Balaton Group.  International Institute for Sustainable Development. http://www.transportes.gov.br/CPMA/IndSustDesenTMA.pdf.

  Beryl Magilavy. 2001. “Moving Sustainable  Development from Theory to Practice.” http://www.sustainable-city.org/document/primer/.

  Jerry Taylor. 2002. “Sustainable Development: A Dubious Solution in Search of a Problem.” Policy Analysis. No 449. August 26, 2002. Published by the Cato Institute. Washington, D.C. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=1308.

  Philosophy, Theories, Principles, and Guidelines of Sustainable Development

 Geoffrey Lamberton. 2005. “Sustainable sufficiency - an internally consistent version of sustainability.” Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/109898009/ABSTRACT.

 Michael Redclift. 2005. “Sustainable development (1987-2005): an oxymoron comes of age.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 212-227 (July 2005). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110573458/ABSTRACT.

 Timothy W. Luke. 2005. “Neither sustainable nor development: reconsidering sustainability in development.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 228-238 (August 2005). Copyright ©; 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110579886/ABSTRACT.

  Miguel A. Santos. 2005. “Environmental stability and sustainable development.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 5 , Pages 326 – 336. Published Online: 17 Nov 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112142494/ABSTRACT.

 Renato J. Orsato, Stewart R. Clegg. 2005. “Radical reformism: towards critical ecological modernization.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 4 , Pages 253 – 267. Published Online: 29 Sep 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112097330/ABSTRACT.

 Delyse Springett, Barry Foster. 2005. “Whom is sustainable development for? Deliberative democracy and the role of unions (p 271-281).Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 5 , Pages 271 – 281. Published Online: 27 Apr 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment.  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110476305/ABSTRACT.

 Erling Holden, Kristin Linnerud. 2006. “The sustainable development area: satisfying basic needs and safeguarding ecological sustainability.” Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113391087/ABSTRACT.

 Tomas Hellström. 2006. “Dimensions of environmentally sustainable innovation: the structure of eco-innovation concepts.” Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112696223/ABSTRACT.

Tomi J. Kallio, Piia Nordberg, Ari Ahonen. 2006. “Rationalizing sustainable development- a critical treatise.” Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/ 112696205/ABSTRACT.

Mohan Munasinghe. 1997. Environmental Economics and Sustainable Development. The Internal Bank for Reconstruction and Development. The World Bank. http://books.google.com/books?id=lOl9HCNJnkwC&pg=PP5&lpg=PP2&dq=causes+of+sustainable+development&psp=9&sig=hxTgTbNaAXvHDIw-0gATbR0JsTQ.

P. Hardi and T. Zdan. 1997. Assessing Sustainable Development: Principles in Practice. Winnipeg: IISD.

“Sustainability Principles, Ecosystem Principles.” 1997. Compiled by Susan Murcott, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. AAAS Annual Conference, IIASA "Sustainability Indicators Symposium," Seattle, WA 2/16/97.

Magilavy, Beryl. 2001. “Moving Sustainable  Development from Theory to Practice.” http://www.sustainable-city.org/document/primer/.

“Sustainable Development Principles.” http://www.iisd.org/sd/principle.asp.

Andrew Steer. 1996. “Ten Principles of the New Environmentalism.” http://www.worldbank.org/ fandd/english/1296/articles/0111296.htm.

Martin Khor. “Globalisation and sustainable development: Challenges for Johannesburg.” http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/twr139a.htm.

“Principles Of Sustainable Livelihoods.” January 13-15, 1995. http://www.pcdf.org/ 1995/princsl.htm. North American Regional Consultation on Sustainable Livelihoods.

Methods in and Approaches to Sustainable Development

 Simon Bell, Stephen Morse. 2006. “Story telling in sustainable development projects.” Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112770595/ABSTRACT.

  Ali Bagheri, Peder Hjorth. 2006. “Planning for sustainable development: a paradigm shift towards a process-based approach.” Sustainable Development. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113392843/ABSTRACT.

 Anna Kukla-Gryz. 2006. “Use of structural equation modeling to examine the relationships between growth, trade and the environment in developing countries.” Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112718261/ABSTRACT.

 Sardar M. N. Islam, Matthew F. Clarke. 2005. The welfare economics of measuring sustainability: a new approach based on social choice theory and systems analysis.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 5, Date: December 2005, Pages: 282-296. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110512219/ABSTRACT.

 J. Keith Rennie, Naresh Singh. 1996. “Participatory Research for Sustainable Livelihoods: A Guidebook for Field Projects.” http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=308.

 Peter Hardi, László Pintér, 1995. “Models and Methods of Measuring Sustainable Development Performance.” Peter Hardi, László Pintér, 1995. “Models and Methods of Measuring Sustainable Development Performance.” http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=763..

Problems and Root Causes

 Robert Hay. 2005. “Becoming ecosynchronous, Part 1: The root causes of our unsustainable way of life.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 5 , Pages 311 – 325. Published Online: 2 Aug 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110576321/ABSTRACT.

Michael R Redclift. 2000. Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions. New York: Routledge.  http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=mmUbhxzlof0C&oi=fnd&pg=PP7&sig= hBzpJiQSCkGUX0BYiSrJJZDkx9g&dq=causes+of+sustainable+development&prev=http://scholar.google.com/scholar%3Fq%3Dcauses%2Bof%2Bsustainable%2Bdevelopment%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D

Declarations on Sustainable Development

Agenda 21. Declaration of Rio - Priorities for action. 1992. Earth Summit at Rio, Brazil. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/index.htm.

World Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002. Johannesburg, Africa. http://www.iisd.ca/wssd/portal.html.

3. “The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development.” 4 September 2002. www.basd-action.net/.

4.  The Cartagena Protocol - a battle over trade or biosafety? 1999. http://www.biosafety-info.net/article.php?aid=57. Source: Third World Resurgence No. 104-105 (Apr/May 1999). Publication date: April 01, 1999. Posting date: February 15, 2004.

5. “Manitoba Round Table on Environment & Economy.” 1994. http://www.iisd.org/sd/ principle.asp?pid=13&display=1.

6.  “The Dublin Statement On Water and Sustainable Development.” 1992. http://www.wmo.ch/ web/homs/documents/english/icwedece.html

Global Institutions Involved in Sustainable Development

“National Sustainable Development Strategies.” 2006. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/ natlinfo/nsds/nsds.htm.

Vangile Titi, Richard Strickland, Naresh C. Singh. 1995. “Sustainable Development and the World Summit for Social Development.” IISD. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/wssd.pdf.

Darren A. Swanson, László Pintér, François Bregha, Axel Volkery, Klaus Jacob, IISD and GTZ , 2004. “National Strategies for Sustainable Development: Challenges, Approaches and Innovations in Strategic and Co-ordinated Action.” International Institute for Sustainable Development; Stratos Inc.; the Environmental Policy Research Centre of the Freie Universität Berlin; and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development). http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2004/ measure_nat_strategies_sd.pdf.

  The World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/sustainabledevelopment/aboutus.html.

 “The World Bank: A Commitment to Environmentally and Socially Responsible Growth.” 2004. http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/sdvext.nsf/43ByDocName/SustainableDevelopment.

 The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). “Sustainable Development Strategy: 2004–2006.” Source: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/cida_ind.nsf/0/ F395F90E46BEEF1285256E3500699F9F?OpenDocument.

    “What are NGOs?” www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty/#WhatareNGOs.

 Anup Shah. 2000. “Non-governmental Organizations on Development Issues?” http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty/NGOs.asp# WhatareNGOs.  

 Gabriel Eweje. 2006. “Strategic partnerships between MNEs and civil society: the post-WSSD perspectives.” Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112604123/ ABSTRACT.

 “Asia pacific economic cooperation forum.” 1997. http://www.iisd.ca/sd/apec.html.  Meeting of environment ministers on sustainable development. 9-11  June 1997 in Toronto, Canada. For the summary report, see http://www.iisd.ca/sd/sd0603.html.  

Country Case Studies and Experiences

  The Experiences of the United Kingdom on Sustainable Development. http://www.sustainable-development.gov.uk.

  Social Development Agenda for Nepal. Available in PDF format.

  “Biodiversity – Bangladesh.” http://www.sdnpbd.org/sdi/international_days/wed/2006/ bangladesh/naturalres/biodiversity.htm.

4.  Judith E. M. Klostermann, Jacqueline Cramer. 2006. “The contextual meaning of sustainable development: the case of the Dutch drinking water sector.” (p 268-276).  
Published Online: 15 May 2006. Sustainable Development. Volume 14, Issue 4, Pages 268–276.  Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112604434/ABSTRACT.

  “Sustainable Forests: A Canadian Commitment.” March 1992. http://www.iisd.org/sd/princi ple.asp?pid=15&display=1.

 “Planning for Sustainability: Supporting NGO Self-Financing Ventures.” http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs/NGO_support/PDF/snfp.pdf.

Ecology Issues

“Environment.” SD Gateway. http://www.sdgateway.net/topics/96.htm.

Biodiversity

1. “Biodiversity.” http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/biodiversity/.

2. Norse, Elliott A., Kenneth L. Rosenbaum, David S. Wilcove, Bruce A. Wilcox, William H. Romme, and David W. Johnston. 1986. Conserving Biological Diversity in Our National Forests. Washington, D.C.: The Wilderness Society.

3.  “Biodiversity.” http://www.sdgateway.net/topics/97.htm.

4.  “Biodiversity.” http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan99/jan99.6.htm.

Climate Change

  Fred Pearce. 2006. “Instant Expert: Climate Change.” NewScientist.com news service. New Scientist Tech.  http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/climate-change.

“Energy for Sustainable Development: The Challenge.” http://www.undp.org/energy/.

   “Climate Change.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/climate_ change/climate change.htm.

 Fred Pearce. 2006. “The poor will pay for global warming.” 11 November 2006. New Scientist Tech.  Magazine issue 2577. http://www.newscientist.com/channel/earth/climate-change/ mg19225774.600-the-poor-will-pay-for-global-warming.html.

 Anne Hammill. 2004. “Focusing on Current Realities: It’s time for the impacts of climate change to take centre stage.” IISD Commentary.  http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2004/ commentary_climate.pdf.

Desertification

1. “Desertification.” http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/desertification/

2. “Desertification - Causes.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desertification.

3. Desertification–Effects. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/Envfacts/facts/desertification.htm.

4. “Desertification and Drought.” http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/desertification/ desert.htm. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development.

Ozone Layer

1.   “Ozone Layer.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozone_layer

2. “Ozone Science: The Facts Behind the Phaseout.” http://www.epa.gov/ozone/ science/sc_fact.html

3.   “The Science of Ozone Depletion.” http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/index.html.

  “Energy for Sustainable Development: The Challenge.” http://www.undp.org/energy/.

Solid Waste Management

1. “An Overview of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act.” http://www.emb.gov.ph/ eeid/ESWM.htm.

2. “Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).” http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/estdir/pub/msw/index.asp.

3. “Urban Solid Waste Management” http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ TOPICS/EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/EXTUSWM/0,,menuPK:463847~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:463841,00.html.

4. “Waste management.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_management.

5. Andrew M. King, Stuart C. Burgess, Winnie Ijomah, Chris A. McMahon. 2005. “Reducing waste: repair, recondition, remanufacture or recycle?”  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Sustainable Development. Volume 14, Issue 4 , Pages 257 – 267. Published Online: 29 Dec 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment  http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112223170/ABSTRACT.

6. “Hazardous Wastes.” http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/waste_hazardous/ wasteh.htm. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. 

7. “Radioactive Wastes.” http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/waste_radioactive/ waster.htm. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development.

8. “Solid Wastes.” http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/waste_solid/wastes.htm. . United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development.

9. “Toxic Chemicals.” http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/toxic_chemicals/toxicc.htm.  United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development.

Economic Issues

 “Poverty.” http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/poverty/poverty.htm. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development.

2. Ray Hudson. 2005. “Towards sustainable economic practices, flows and spaces: or is the necessary impossible and the impossible necessary?” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 239 – 252. Published Online: 29 Sep 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112097332/ABSTRACT.

  Anantha K. Duraiappah. 2000. “Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation Exploring the Links.” IISD. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/pov_sd_overview.pdf.

  Daniel Morrow. 2001. “Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers And Sustainable Development, Ottawa, January 23, 2001.”IISD.  http://www.iisd.org/pdf/pe_morrow_presentation.pdf.

 A. Markandya. 2001. “Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Management of Natural Capital,” IISD. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/pe_markandya_ presentation.pdf.

 Gilberto Gallopin. 1994. “Impoverishment and Sustainable Development: A Systems Approach.” IISD. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/impoverishment_and_sd.pdf.

 “Ecological Debt.” http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan96/4jan96.htm.

 “Trade and Sustainable Development.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/trade/ trade.htm

  “Environment and Trade: A Handbook.” 2005. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and International Institute for Sustainable Development(IISD). http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2005/envirotrade_handbook_2005.pdf.

 Howard Mann, Konrad von Moltke, Aaron Cosbey, Luke Eric Peterson, 2005. “IISD Model International Agreement on Investment for Sustainable Development - Negotiators' Handbook.” http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2005/investment_model_int_handbook.pdf.

Tom Conway. 1998. “A Framework for Assessing the Relationship Between Trade Liberalization and Biodiversity Conservation.” IISD-UNEP.

Mark Schreiner. 2006. “A Simple Poverty Scorecard for the Philippines.” Center for Social Development, Washington University of St. Louis. http://www.microfinance.com/English/ Papers/Scoring_Poverty_Philippines.pdf.

“Towards A Southern Agenda on Investment: Summary of Country Studies and Some Observations.” IISD, IISD, 2004. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2004/investment_sai_sum.pdf.

Mark Schreiner. 2006. “Simple Poverty Progress Indices for Bangladesh, Haiti, India, Mexico, Pakistan, and the Philippines.” Microfinance Risk Management, L.L.C. Washington D.C., U.S.A. A power-point presentation on the application of the poverty scorecard in six selected countries. http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/Scoring_Poverty_Six_Countries.pdf.

“The Present State of Development.” Human Development Report 1998 Overview, United Nations Development Programme-UNDP.

Dejillas, Leopoldo J. 2004. “Strategies of War Against Global Poverty: The Unfolding of a Tumultuous Saga.” in Bedan Research Journal. Vol. I, No. 1, First semester, 2004. Pp. 130-160.

Ram, Ratti. 1992. “Intercountry Inequalities in Income and Basic Needs Indicators: A Recent Perspective.” World Development 20 (6): 899 – 905.

William Young, Karla Utting. 2005. “Fair trade, business and sustainable development.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 3, pp. 139-142. Published Online: 28 Jun 2005.  Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jissue/110550172.

Micro-finance and Micro-enterprises

  Clarke, G. et al. 2002. “Does Foreign Bank Penetration Reduce Access to Credit in Developing Countries? Evidence from Asking Borrowers.” The World Bank Development Research Group. February 2002. http://www.worldbank.org/research/conferences/financial_globalization/ foreign_bank_penetration.pdf

  Prasad, Eswar, Kenneth Rogoff, Shang-Jin Wei and M. Ayhan Kose. 2003. “Effects of Financial Globalization on Developing Countries: Some Empirical Evidence.” IMF March 17, 2003. http://www.imf.org/external/np/res/docs/2003/031703.htm; see also http://www.imf.org/ external/np/res/docs/2003/031703.pdf

  “Microfinance: Financial Services for the Poor.” Updated: 17 October 2006.  http://www.adb.org/Microfinance/.

  Mark Schreiner. 2001. “Microenterprise in the First and Third Worlds.” Center for Social Development, Washington University of St. Louis. Can microenterprise programmes work as well in the first world as in the third? http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/ Microenterprise_in_First_ and_Third_Worlds.pdf.  

  Mark Joseph Schreiner. 1997. “A Framework for the Analysis of the Performance and Sustainability of Subsidized Microfinance Organizations …” Doctoral Dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of the Ohio State University. http://www.microfinance.com/ English/Papers/Dissertation_Complete.pdf.

  Mark Schreiner. 2002. “Aspects of Outreach: A Framework for the Discussion of the Social Benefits of Microfinance.” http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/Aspects_of_ Outreach.pdf. Wide agreement about the goal of microfinance---to improve the welfare of the poor---has not led to wide agreement about how best to achieve that goal. To aid the discussion, I propose a framework for outreach---the social benefits of microfinance---in terms of six aspects: worth, cost, depth, breadth, length, and scope.

  Mark Schreiner. 1999. Development Finance Institutions: Measuring Their Subsidy. http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/DFIs_Measuring_Their_Subsidy.pdf.

  Mark Schreiner. 1999. “A Framework For Measuring the Performance and Sustainability of Subsidised Development Finance Institutions.” http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/ Framework_for_Measurement.pdf.

  Mark Schreiner. 2002. “Women, Microfinance, and Savings: Lessons and Proposals.” http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/Women_Microfinance_and_Savings. pdf.

Mark Schreiner. 200. “Informal Finance and the Design of Microfinance.” http://www.microfinance.com/English/Papers/Informal_Finance_Lessons.pdf.

Richard Matthew, Anne Hammill, 2006. “Surviving in a Changing World: Environment, Security and Microfinance.” The Green Cross Optimist. http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=798.

Accounting Issues and Measuring Sustainable Development

  Kala Saravanamuthu. 2005. “Emancipatory accounting and sustainable development: a Gandhian-Vedic theorization of experimenting with truth.” University of New England, Australia. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112130776/ABSTRACT.

  Judy Brown, Michael Fraser. 2006. “Approaches and perspectives in social and environmental accounting: an overview of the conceptual landscape.” Business Strategy and the Environment. Volume 15, Issue 2, Date: March/April 2006, Pages: 103-117. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112469005/ABSTRACT.

  Matthew Clarke, Sardar M. N. Islam. 2005. “National account measures and sustainability objectives: present approaches and future prospects.” Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112126117/ABSTRACT.

  P. Bartelmus. 2001. “Accounting for Sustainability: Greening the National Accounts,” in M. K. Tolba (ed.), Our Fragile World, Forerunner to the Encyclopedia of Life Support System, Vol. II, pp. 1721-1735.

5. Dieren, Wouter van (ed). 1995. “Taking nature into account : a report to the Club of Rome.” New York: Copernicus (Springer Verlag), 1995. 332 p.  http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan96/litscan.htm.

  Repetto, Robert. 1992. “Earth in the balance sheet: incorporating natural resources in national income accounts.” Environment (September 1992): 13-45 pp. http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan96/litscan.htm.

  UN Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. 1993. “Integrated environmental and economic accounting.” Interim version. New York, NY: United Nations, 1993. 182 p. http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan96/litscan.htm.

Political, Policy, and Legal Issues

 Merkel, Christine M. 1995. "Sustainability and Democracy in Industrialized Countries." The author is a staff member of the German UNESCO Commission. A Conference sponsored by IBASE and WEED. Bonn, October, 1995.  http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/politics/ 95ibaseweed.htm.

  Vangile Titi, Naresh Singh. 1995. “Empowerment: Towards Sustainable Development.” IISD.  Fernwood Publishing and Zed Books.  http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=290.

  Vangile Titi, Naresh C. Singh. 1995. “Empowerment for Sustainable Development: Towards Operational Strategies.”  IISD. http://www.iisd.org/publications/pub.aspx?pno=289.

  Ralph A. Luken. 2006. “Where is developing country industry in sustainable development planning?”. Volume 14, Issue 1 , Pages 46 – 61. Published Online: 27 Jan 2006. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112369660/ABSTRACT.

  Bill Hopwood , Mary Mellor, Geoff O'Brien. 2005. “Sustainable development: mapping different approaches.” Sustainable Cities Research Institute, University of Northumbria, Newcastle on Tyne, UK. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/109898010/ABSTRACT.

Progress in Environmental law Drafting in South Eastern Europe.” 2005. http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs/EnvironmentalLaw/PDF/Progress_in_Environmental_Law_Drafting_in_SEE.pdf. 186 pages, December 2005.

  Goldsmith, Edward. 1993. “Development and Colonialism.” Published in Ecoscript No. 35, by the Foundation for Eco-development. http://www.edwardgoldsmith.com/ page27.html.

Weizsäcker, Ernst Ulrich von. 2002. “Democracy and Globalization” in Deuthschland. E No. 4/2002. August/September. Pp. 6-9.

Adil Najam, Mihaela Papa, Nadaa Taiyab. 2006. “Global Environmental Governance: A Reform Agenda.” http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2006/geg.pdf.

Social Issues

The International Bill of Human Rights.” Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/.  This includes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966, Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty.

  “Sanitation.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/sanitation/sanitation.htm.

  “Demographics.” United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs: Division for Sustainable Development. http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/sdissues/demographics/ demographics. htm.

  Kostas P. Bithas, M. Christofakis. 2006. “Environmentally sustainable cities. Critical review and operational conditions.” Sustainable Development. Volume 14, Issue 3 , Pages 177 – 189. Published Online: 13 Jan 2006. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112230608/ABSTRACT.

  David Satterthwaite. 1997. “Sustainable Cities or Cities that Contribute to Sustainable Development?” Volume 34, Number 10 / October 1, 1997. http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/(hw0pes45nml4lxnnltbd2mj3)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,6,12;journal,109,266;linkingpublicationresults,1:100403,1.

  “The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.” This was adopted unanimously and by acclamation at UNESCO's 29th General Conference on 11 November 1997. The following year, the United Nations General Assembly endorsed the Declaration. http://portal.unesco.org/shs/en/ev.php-URL_ID=1881&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html. This site gives the history and evaluation of the declaration.

  Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights 11 November 1997.  http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13177&URL_DO=DOTOPIC&URL_ SECTION= 201.html. This site gives the entire text of the declaration.

  “Implementation of the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights.” http://portal.unesco.org/shs/en/ev.php-URL_ID=2409&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html. Resolution adopted on the report of Commission III at the 25th plenary meeting, on 16 November 1999.

Cultural Issues

  Huntington, Sammuel P. 1997. “The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Touchstone. http://www.globalenvision.org/library/2/181/.

  IISD. 2001. “Integrating Aboriginal Values into Land-Use and Resource Management.” http://www.iisd.org/pdf/skownan_1_nopics.pdf.

 “Sustainable Forests and Indigenous Issues.” http://www.iisd.org/forests/countdown/cf-6.pdf.

4.  Connor, James L. S.J. 1999. “Global Economy and Cultures.” Woodstock Report, October 1999, No. 59. Copyright © 1999 Woodstock Theological Center. All rights reserved. http://www.georgetown.edu/centers/woodstock/report/r-fea59.htm.

  IISD. 2003. “Traditional Knowledge and Patentability.” IISD Trade and Development Brief, Number 7 of 9, 2003. http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2003/investment_sdc_may_2003_7.pdf.

  Dahl, Stephan. “Communications and Culture Transformation: Cultural Diversity, Globalization and Cultural Convergence.” http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/ capstone.shtml. See also http://www.stephweb.com/capstone/capstone.pdf.

  Ferraro, Vincent.  1997. "The Challenge of Tradition.“ A Talk to the Mount Holyoke College European Alumnae Council Amsterdam, 22 March 1997.   http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/amster.htm

  Goswami, Rahul. 2003. “Globalization Erodes Local Languages, Fuels 'Glocal' English.” Inter Press Service. July 30, 2003. http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2003/ 0730glocal.htm

  Halbfass, Wilhelm. 1990. India and Europe. First edition, Delhi: MLBD, 1990.

 Latham, A. J. H. 2001. “Karl Polanyi: Some Observations.” In http://222.lonsoc.org.uk/ ihr/esh/archpolanyi.html. June 27, 2001.

Polanyi, K. 1944. The Great Transformation. New York: Rinehard and Co.

Polanyi, K. 1945. Origins of Our Time: The Great Transformation. London: Gollancz.

Rothkop, David. 1997. “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism? Effects of Globalization on Culture.” Foreign Policy. June 22, 1997. http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/ cultural/globcult.htm

Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M. and Desirée Baolian Qin-Hilliard. (eds.). 2004. Culture and Education in the New Millennium.  California: The University of California Press. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10166/10166.ch01.html

Tuhus-Dubrow, Rebecca. 2002. “World’s Languages Are Fast Disappearing.” Indypendent. April 25, 2002. http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/cultural/2002/ 0425fast.htm

Katie Williams, Carol Dair. 2006. “A framework of sustainable behaviours that can be enabled through the design of neighbourhood-scale developments.”  Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113411815/ABSTRACT.

Wright, Robert. 1995. “The Evolution of Despair.” TIME, August 28, 1995.

Delyse Springett. 2005. ”Education for sustainability in the business studies curriculum: a call for a critical agenda.” Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. Business Strategy and the Environment. Volume 14, Issue 3 , Pages 146 – 159. Special Issue: Educating for Sustainability. Issue Edited by Delyse Springett, Kate Kearins. Published Online: 20 Apr 2005.  Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110473886/ABSTRACT.

Alternative Frameworks, Paradigms, and Definitions

In addition to the readings provided below, the students may find the various references of their other subjects in the doctoral program helpful.

 Her-Jiun Sheu, Shih-Fang Lo. 2005. “A new conceptual framework integrating environment into corporate performance evaluation.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 79-90 (April 2005). Published Online: 4 Apr 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110436405/ABSTRACT.

  Amir Abbas Rassafi, Hossain Poorzahedy, Manouchehr Vaziri. 2006. “An alternative definition of sustainable development using stability and chaos theories.” Sustainable Development. Volume 14, Issue 1 , Pages 62 – 71. Published Online: 24 Nov 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/112154738/ABSTRACT.

  Ali Bagheri, Peder Hjorth. 2006. “Planning for sustainable development: a paradigm shift towards a process-based approach.” Sustainable Development. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/113392843/ABSTRACT.

  Robert Hay. 2005. “Becoming ecosynchronous, Part 1: The root causes of our unsustainable way of life.” Sustainable Development. Volume 13, Issue 5 , Pages 311 – 325. Published Online: 2 Aug 2005. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110576321/ABSTRACT

books and articles

Ali, Abbas, J. 2006. “Globalization is Beneficial to Society.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 19-24.

Allen, T.F.H. and Thomas W. Hoekstra. 1992. Toward a Unified Ecology. N.Y.: Columbia University Press. “If a physicist studying quantum mechanics chooses to suppress the role of the observer in the system, the consequence is wrong predictions. This is called observation problem, the dilemma of reliance on observation to gain insight into the world which is above and beyond the specifics of the observation” (p. 14). Even at the grossest level of decision making, when the eclogist chooses what to study, that act influences the outcome of the investigation (p. 15).

Anderson, Roger N. 1998. “Oil Production in the 21st Century.” Scientific American, March 1998. Reprinted in Hall (ed.), 2007, op. cit., pp. 32-46.

Ashworth, William. 1995. The Economy of Nature: Rethinking the Connections Between Ecology and Economics. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. We don’t have to choose between ecology and economics. We can’t have one without the other argues the author. With hard facts, the author proves that what is good for the marketplace is also good for the ecosystem, and vice versa. Most ecological damage, he says, is the result, not of market forces, but of forces that also damage the market. (Pioneered in the early 20th century by an Austrian-born British citizen named Ludwig Wittgenstein, the modern sense of the term (paradigm) is that of a simple conceptual framework around which a complex system of though or behavior can be organized. Paradigms are the scaffolding for ideas).

Avery, Dennis T. 2002. “Commercial High-Yield Farming Practices Preserve Biodiversity.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 135-141.

Baskin, Yvonne. 2005. Underground: How Creatures of Mud and Dirt Shape Our World. Washington. Island Press.

Baskin, Yvonne. 1997. The Work of Nature: How the Diversity of Life Sustains Us. California: Island Press. The lavish array of organisms known as “biodiversity” forms an intricately linked web, making the earth a uniquely habitable planet. Yet the pressures from human activities are destroying biodiversity at an unprecedented rate. What impact does the loss of specific species have on the ecological processes that nurture life on earth? In this book, the author examines the threats posed to humans by the loss of biodiversity. She summarizes and explains key findings from the ecological sciences, highlighting examples from around the world where shifts in species have affected the provision of clean air, pure water, fertile soils, lush landscapes, and stable natural communities. As the author makes clear, biodiversity is more than number of species---it includes the complexity, richness, and abundance of nature at all levels, from the genes carried by local populations to the layout of communities and ecosystems across the landscape.

Brown, Lester R. Plan B: Rescuing a Planet under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. N.Y.: W.W. Norton & Company. This book outlines the steps to regain control of our future. The Plan covers such strategies and techniques as: raising water productivity; raising land productivity; cutting carbon emissions in half; and responding to the social challenge.

Charles, John A. 2006. “Globalization Benefits the Environment.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 91-96.

Cothran, Helen. 2003. Global Resources: Opposing Viewpoints. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

D’Agnese, Joseph. 2002. “Technology May Affect Human Nature.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 177-185.

Deffeyes, Kenneth S. 2001. Hubbert’s Peak: The Impending Oil Shortage. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.  Geophysicist M. King Hubbert predicted in 1956 that U.S. oil production would reach its highest level in the early 1970s. Though roundly criticized by oil experts and economists, Hubbert’s prediction came true in 1970. Using Hubbert’s methods and using the latest information on the world supply of oil, Deffeyes finds that world oil production will peak in this decade---and there isn’t anything we can do to stop it. While long-term solutions exist in the form of conservation and alternative energy sources, they probably cannot---and almost certainly will not---be enacted in time to evade a short-term catastrophe.

Dimbleby, Jonathan. 2003. “Organic Farming Protects the Environment and Sustains Human Life.” In Cothran, 2003, supra. Pp. 77-83.

Dudley, William (ed.). 2002. Biodiversity. Current Controversy Series. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, Inc.

Economist, “Genetically Engineered Foods Should Be Produced.” In Cothran, Helen. 2003. supra. pp. 60-67.

Featheringgill, Linda. 2002. “Capitalism Threatens Agricultural Biodiversity.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 125-128.

Fisher, George W. 2000. “Sustainable Living: Common Ground for Geology and Theology.” In Schneiderman, 2000. op. cit., pp. 99-111. Questions of ethics and values have generally been grounded in religious or theological thoughts, and it seems inevitable that a serious approach to sustainability must involve a constructive dialogue between science and religion. Although commonly thought to be incompatible, science and technology have a complex history of interaction, often contentious, but in the end beneficial to both sides. In his work, the author argues that progress on the issue of sustainable living depends on using both the intellectual knowledge provided by science and the moral understanding derived from religion.

Gallant, Roy A. 2003. The Wonders of Biodiversity. New York: Benchmark Books. The world is now undergoing the fastest mass extinction in its entire history. Biodiversity loss the planet is now experiencing is more serious than global warming or pollution.

Gerdes, Louise I. (ed.). 2006. Globalization: Opposing Viewpoints. N.Y.: Thomson Gale.

Goodman, David, Bernardo Sorj & John Wilkinson. 1987. From Farming to Biotechnology. N.Y.: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Griswold, Daniel T. 2006. “Globalization Harms the World’s Cultures.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 42-48.

Hall, Linley Erin (ed.). 2007. Critical Perspectives on Energy and Power. Scientific American: Critical Anthologies on Environment and Climate. N.Y.: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.

Harmon, David. 2002. “Preserving Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Can Help Protect Biological Diversity.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 205-212. In many of the regions in which biodiversity is imperiled, languages and indigenous cultures are also becoming extinct. The forces of globalization and industrialization endanger both cultural and biological diversity. A biocultural approach that seeks to preserve both realms of diversity is called for.

Heartland Institute. 2002. “The Threat of Global Climate Change to Biodiversity is Exaggerated.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 85-89.

Hosansky, David. 2002. “Mass Extinction and Biodiversity Loss: An Overview.: In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 15-23.

Huber, Peter W and Mark P. Mills. 2005. The Bottomless Well: The Twilight of Fuel, the Virtue of Waste, and Why We Will Never Run Out of Energy. N.Y.: Basic Books. The authors shatter the prevailing myths and show that across the board, energy isn’t the problem---energy is the solution. In this book, they explain: why demand for energy will never go down; why most of what we think of as “energy waste” actually benefits us; why more efficient cars, engines, and bulbs will never lower demand; why energy supply is infinite; why gasoline prices matter less and less; and why hybrid engines will most likely lead us to cars propelled by the coal-fired and uranium-fired grid.

Juhasz, Antonia. 2006. “Globalization Increases Poverty in Developing Nations.’ In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 114-118.

Juma, Calestous. 1989. The Gene Hunters: Biotechnology and the Scramble for Seeds. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Kimball Roger. 2002. “Government Censorship Would Benefit Society.” In Roleff (ed.), op. cit., pp. 17-21.

Lappé, Marc and Britt Bailey. 1998. Against the Grain: Biotechnology and the Corporate Takeover of Your Food. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.

Legrain, Philippe. 2006. “Globalization Benefits the World’s Cultures.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 34-41.

Mahon, Tom. 2002. “Technology Has Harmed Society.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 18-22.

Mander, Jerry. 2006. “Globalization is Harmful to the Environment.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 84-90.

Markham, Adam and Jay Malcolm. 2002. “Global Climate Change Threatens Biodiversity.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 82-84.

Mason, Nigel and Peter Hughes. 2001. Introduction to Environmental Physics: Planet Earth, Life and Climate. N.Y.: Taylor and Francis. In order to appreciate the complex nature of our environment, it is necessary to understand the physical principles that underpin it. Environment Physics is concerned with the physics of environmental processes and issues, particularly where these involve interactions between the atmosphere, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere and biosphere. Environment Physics is the way that we think about how and why environmental change occurs.

McMasters, Paul. 2002. “Speech Should Not Be Restricted.” In Roleff (ed.), op. cit., pp. 22-27.

Moe-Lobeda, Cynthia. 2006. “Globalization is Harmful to Society.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 25-33.

Norberg-Hodge, Helena. 2006. “Local Economies Should Be Protected from Globalization.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 171-173.

Norberg, Johan. 2006. “Protecting Local Economies from Globalization is Harmful.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 175-178.

Norse, Elliott A., Kenneth L. Rosenbaum, David S. Wilcove, Bruce A. Wilcox, William H. Romme, and David W. Johnston. 1986. Conserving Biological Diversity in Our National Forests. Washington, D.C.: The Wilderness Society.

Noss, Reed F. and Allen Y. Cooperrider. 1994. Saving Nature’s Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity. California: Island Press. In this book, the authors provide explicit guidelines on inventorying biodiversity; selecting areas for protection; designing regional and continental reserve networks; managing forests, rangeland, and aquatic ecosystems; establishing monitoring programs; and setting priorities. They translate the principles, techniques, and findings of the ecological sciences into an accessible and practical plan for action.

Nottingham, Stephen. 1998. Eat Your Genes: How Genetically Modified Food is Entering Our Diet. London and New York: Zed Books Ltd.

Odum, Eugene P. 1997. Ecology: A Bridge Between Science and Society. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc. Ecology has continued to emerge from its roots in biology to become more and more a separate discipline that integrates the study of organisms, the physical environment, and human society, in keeping with the Greek root of the word ecology: oikos, the “study of the household,” the total environment in which we live. Ecology has now matured enough to be viewed as the basic science of the total environment. Ecology brings together the biological, physical, and environmental aspects of our world. Because ecology is an integrative science, it has tremendous potential to provide a communication bridge between science and society. The concept of our endangered life-support system is an important unifying theme.

Ojeda, Auriana (ed.). 2002. Technology and Society: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, Inc.

Peron, Jim. 2006. “Globalization Reduces Poverty in Developing Nations.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 119-123.

Pinker, Steven. 2002. “Technology Will Not Affect Human Nature.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 186-191.

Raman, V.V. 2002. “Technology Has Improved Society.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 18-23-39.

Rajiva, Lila. 2006. “Globalization Has Harmed Developing Nations.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 109-113.

Reijntjes, Coen, Bertsus Haverkort, and Ann Waters-Bayer. 1995. Farming for the Future: An Introduction to Low-External-Output and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA). London: MacMillan. The book examines the strategies and techniques of LEISA in the tropics. The central concern of the book is how development workers can assist small-scale farming in making the best use of low-cost local resources to solve their agricultural problems. Emphasis is on participatory technology development (PTD) to find specific solutions and to raise the overall productivity of farming in a sustainable way. The authors have taken an interdisciplinary approach, providing a broad framework of background theory as well as practical ideas and sources of up-to-date information.

Rifkin, Jeremy. 2002. The Hydrogen Economy: The Creation of the Worldwide Energy Web and the Redistribution of Power on Earth. N.Y.: Penguin Putnam, Inc. The author observes that we are fast approaching a critical watershed for the fossil-fuel era, with potentially dire consequences for industrial civilization. Increasing tensions between Islam and the West are likely to further threaten our access to affordable oil. Hydrogen has the potential to end the world’s reliance on imported oil and help defuse the dangerous geopolitical game being played out between Muslim militants and Western nations.

Roleff, Tamara L. (ed.). 2002. Censorship: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, Inc.

Schap, David and Andrew T. Young. 2002. “The Free Market Can Enhance Agricultural Biodiversity.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 145-151.

Schaefer, Brett D. 2006. “Globalization Helps Developing Nations.” In Gerdes (ed.), op. cit., pp. 101-108.

Schauberger, Viktor. 1998. Nature as Teacher: New Principles in the Working of Nature. U.K.: Gateway Books. In the 1930s, the author was predicting ecological catastrophe when no-one else could see it coming. He is now being proved right. He foresaw: global warming and its devastating consequences; increasing violence and lawlessness as the direct result of destructive methods which block Nature’s energies and balance; and the destruction of the world’s forests and ecosystems.

Schneiderman, Jill S. 2000. The Earth Around Us: Maintaining a Livable Planet. N.Y.: W.H. Freeman and Company. This book brings to its readers the scientific understanding of the consequences of human activity on Earth. Some of the 31 essays that constitute this book offer poetic accounts of human thinking about our Earth.

Shiva, Vandana. 2003. “Genetically Engineered Foods Should Not Be Produced.” In Cothran, supra. Pp. 68-76.

Silverstein, Alvin, Virginia Silverstein, and Laura Silverstein Nunn. 1991. Photosynthesis. Brookefield, Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books. There are a number of key concepts that make up the core of science, such as photosynthesis, evolution, and food chains Often one key concept is an important part of others. For example, photosynthesis directly affects food chains, and food chains help determine the path of evolution. Did you know that: the oxygen you breathe in now may once have been breathed in by a dinosaur millions of years of ago?; each year 150 to 200 billion tons of sugar are produced through photosynthesis---three-fourths of it in the sea?; and the average American adult eats more than half a ton of food each year?

Stempsey, William E. 2002. “Selling Human Organs is Unethical.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 84-92.

Tal, Alon (ed.). 2006. Speaking of Earth: Environmental Speeches that Moved the World. N.Y.: Rutgers University Press.

Taylor, Herry. 2003. “Sustainable Development Is Unnecessary.” In Cothran, Helen (ed.). 2003. Global Resources: Opposing Viewpoints. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press. Pp. 202-209.

The Lancet. 2002. “Selling Human Organs is Ethical.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 77-83.

Tuxill, John. 2002. “Commercial Agriculture Is Detrimental to Biodiversity.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 109-119.

VanCleave, Janice. 1996. Ecology for Every Kid: Easy Activities that Make Learning Science Fun. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Veldt, Danja Van Der. 2002. “Sustainable Development Is Necessary to Protect Global Resources.” In Cothran (ed.). 2003, op. cit. Pp. 194-201.

Weizsäcker, Ernst Ulrich von. 2002. “Democracy and Globalization” in Deuthschland. E No. 4/2002. August/September. Pp. 6-9.

Wilson, Edward O. 2002. “Loss of Biodiversity is a Global Crisis.” In Dudley (ed.), op. cit., pp. 24-28.

Wolf, Martin. 2004. Why Globalization Works. New Haven: Yale University Press. The debate on globalization has reached a level of passionate intensity that inhibits rational discussion. In this book, the author explains how globalization works and why it makes sense. He confronts the charges against globalization, delivers a devastating critique of each, and outlines a more hopeful future. Wolf begins by presenting the political and economic case for a global market economy. He then analyzes the history of globalization, with a sharp focus on the tragic ups and downs of the 20th century. Thereupon, he dissects the position of globalization’s critics, rebutting the arguments that it undermines sovereignty, weakens democracy, intensifies inequality, favors exploitative multinational corporations and devastates the environment. Wolf shows that the biggest obstacles to global economic progress have been the failures not of the market, but of politics and policies. Finally, he puts in perspective the threats to globalization, including terrorism, and suggests a route towards a global market economy that works better, and for more people, than ever before.

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