Past tense. A report describes a completed study, so it is written in the past tense. The exception is to state in the present tense any conclusions that apply to present or future situations.
Cite all sources from which you obtained information, using only the last names of the author(s) and the date. E.g.:
· Evasco-Branzuela and Dejillas (2001), or
· (Evasco-Branzuela & Dejillas, 2001). In a parenthetical citation, “&” is used instead of “and.”
When citing an article with three to six authors:
Include all names the first time you cite it Thereafter, refer to it using only the first author and the Latin phrase et al.
When citing an article with more than six authors, even the first time you cite it use only the first author and et al.
Refrain from directly quoting an article. Instead, paraphrase and summarize the idea, so that you tell the readers what they should understand about the idea.
Address the study itself, not its authors.
· We write: “The results are reported in Bower et al. (1975).”
· Not: “The results are reported by Bower et al. (1975).”
To distinguish your study from other studies, refer to it as “this study” or “the present study.” However, do not use these phrases in a way that attributes human actions to nonhuman sources, as in
· Wrong: “This study attempted to demonstrate that…”
· Correct: “I (or we) attempted to demonstrate that…”
Use accepted terminology as much as possible. When you use a nonstandard term or you name a variable, define the word the first time you use it and the use that word consistently. A reader from a different part of the country or another country may not understand the terms.
· Avoid abbreviations. They are justified only if
· A term consists of several words,
· It appears very frequently throughout the report, and
· You are not using many different abbreviations.
· If you must abbreviate, do so by creating an acronym, using the first letter of each word of the term the first time it is used, with its acronym in parenthesis. Then, use only the acronym, except as the first word of a sentence.
· Use words for numbers zero to nine, and digits for number that 10 and larger. However, use digits for any size number if:
You are writing series of numbers in which at least one is 10 or larger
· The number contains a decimal
· It refers to a statistical result or
· It refers to a precise measurement
· Also, never begin a sentence with a number expressed in digits.
In research published before 1994, you’ll see the generic term “subjects” to refer to the individuals that researchers study. A post-1994 study change in APA style now requires the use of less impersonal and more precise terms. The generic term to use is “participants,” but where appropriate use more descriptive terms such as students, children, men, women, rats, or pigeons.
Use precise wordings. We won’t say that participants “forgot,” but participants “failed to recall it.”
Basic Source: Heiman, Gary W. 1998. Understanding Research Methods and Statistics. Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, pp. 613-614.
Citing Electronic Sources
Full-text sources from library sources (online and CD-ROM)
Last name of author, first initial. (Year, month day). Title. Journal (Type of medium), volume (issue), paging if given or other indicator of length. Available: supplier/database name and number/identifier number, item, or accession number [access date].
Crow, P. (1994). GATT shows progress in Congress. The Oil and Gas Journal [Online], 92(49), 32 (1p.). Available: Information Access/Expanded Academic Index ASAP/A15955498 [1996, March 13].
Last name of author, first initial. (Year, month day). “Title.” Journal [Type of medium], volume (issue), paging if given or other indicator of length. Available: supplier/database name and number/identifier number, item, or accession number [access date].*
Crow, P. (1994). “GATT shows progress in Congress.” The Oil and Gas Journal [Online], 92.49 (1994): 32-33). Online. Available: Information Access Company. Expanded Academic Index ASAP 13 Mar. 1996.
WWW sites: individual works with print equivalent
Last name of author/editor, first initial. (Year, Month day). Title (Edition). [Type of medium]. Producer. Available: address or source/path/file [access date].
Barlett, J. (1995 March). Familiar quotations: passages, phrases & proverbs traced to their sources (9th ed.). [Online]. Columbia University. Available: http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/barlett/[1996, March 19].
Last name of author/editor, first name. Title of print version of work. Edition statement. Place of publication: publisher, date. Title of electronic work. Medium [Online]. Information supplier. Available protocol: http://www.address.goes.here.Access date [dy mo yr].
Barlett, J. Familiar Quotations: Passages, Phrases & Proverbs Traced To Their Sources in Ancient & Modern Literature, 9th ed. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. 1901. Familiar Quotations: Passages, Phrases & Proverbs Traced To Their Sources. Online. Columbia University. Available HTTP:http://www.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/barlett/ 19 Mar. 1996.
WWW sites: parts of works
Last name of author/editor, first initial. (Year, month day). Title of article or document. In Title of Source (edition), [Online]. Paging or indicator of length. Available: address or source/path/file [access date].
Last name of author, first name. “Title of article or document.” Title of journal, newsletter, or conference. Volume. Issue number (year) or date of publication: Number of pages or pars. Medium [online]. Available protocol: http://www.address.goes.here. Access date [dy mo yr].
WWW sites: e-mail, listserv, and discussion list messages
Last name of author, first initial (if known). (Year, month day). Subject of message. Discussion List [Online]. Available E-mail: LISTSERV@e-mail address [Access date].
Last name of author, first name (if known). “Subject line from posting.” Date. Medium [online]. Discussion List [Online]. Available E-mail: LISTSERV@e-mail address [Access date].
WWW sites: home page
Last name of author/editor, first initial (if known). (Last update or copyright date). Home Page Title [Home page of…]. Available protocol: http://www.address.goes.here. [Access date].
Source: Adapted from APA Guides for Citing Electronic Sources and Guidelines for Citing Electronic Sources-MLA, Cedarville College Centennial Library, Cedarville, OH 45314. Reproduced in Cooper, Donald R. and Pamela S. Schindler. 1998. Business Research Methods. Singapore: McGraw-Hill International Editions. Statistics & Probability Series, pp. 606-607.
Merits of Interviewing Versus Questionnaire
Major Expenses Involved
Payment to interviewers
Training of interviewers
Opportunities to ask questions
Limited to what is phrased in the
Opportunities for probing
Limited, if not possible
Number of respondents
Limited because of time
Rate of return
Very low (less than 50%)
Sources of error
Interviewer, instrument, sample
Limited to instrument and sample
Emphasis on writing skills
Basic Source: Tuckwan, 1972